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Собрание всего, что поспособствует изучению OctoberCMS

All websites have pages. In October pages are represented with page templates. Page template files reside in the /pages subdirectory of a theme directory. Page file names do not affect the routing, but it's a good idea to name your pages accordingly to the page function. The files should have the htm extension. The Configuration and Twig template sections are required for pages but the PHP section is optional. Below you can see the simplest home page example.

url = "/"
==
<h1>Hello, world!</h1>

Page configuration

Page configuration is defined in the Configuration Section of the page template file. The page configuration defines the page parameters, required for the routing and rendering the page and page Components, which are explained in another article. The following configuration parameters are supported for pages:

  • url - the page URL, required. The URL syntax is described below.
  • title - the page title, required.
  • layout - the page layout, optional. If specified, should contain the name of the layout file, without extension, for example: default.
  • description - the page description for the back-end interface, optional.

URL syntax

The page URL is defined with the url configuration parameter. URLs should start with the forward slash character and can contain parameters. URLs without parameters are fixed and strict. In the following example the page URL is /blog.

url = "/blog"

URLs with parameters are more flexible. A page with the URL pattern defined in the following example would be displayed for any address like /blog/post/something. URL parameters can be accessed by October components or from the page PHP code section.

url = "/blog/post/:post_id"

This is how you can access the URL parameter from the page PHP section (see the Dynamic pages section for more details):

url = "/blog/post/:post_id"
==
function onStart()
{
    $post_id = $this->param('post_id');
}
==

Parameter names should be compatible with PHP variable names. To make a parameter optional add the question mark after its name:

url = "/blog/post/:post_id?"

Parameters in the middle of the URL cannot be optional. In the next example the :post_id parameter is marked as optional, but is processed as required.

url = "/blog/:post_id?/comments"

Optional parameters can have default values which are used as fallback values in case the real parameter value is not presented in the URL. Default values cannot contain any pipe symbols or question marks. The default value is specified after the question mark. In the next example the category_id parameter would be 10 for the URL /blog/category.

url = "/blog/category/:category_id?10"

You can also use regular expressions to validate parameters. To add a validation expression, add the pipe symbol after the parameter name (or the question mark) and specify the expression. The forward slash symbol is not allowed in the expressions. Examples:

url = "/blog/:post_id|^[0-9]+$/comments" - this will match /blog/post/10/comments
...
url = "/blog/:post_id|^[0-9]+$" - this will match /blog/post/3
...
url = "/blog/:post_name?|^[a-z0-9\-]+$" - this will match /blog/my-blog-post

Note: Subdirectories do not affect page URLs - the URL is defined only with the url parameter.

Динамические страницы

Inside the Twig section of a page template you can use any native Twig functions, filters and tags as well as the Twig extensions provided by October. Any dynamic page requires variables. In October page variables can be prepared by the page or layout PHP section or by Components. In this article we describe how to prepare variables in the PHP section.

Page execution cycle handlers

There are two special functions that could be defined in the PHP section of pages and layouts: onStart() and onEnd(). The onStart() function is executed in the beginning of the page execution. The onEnd() function is executed before the page is rendered and after the page components are executed. In the onStart and onEnd functions you can inject variables to the Twig environment. Use the array notation to pass variables to the page:

url = "/"
==
<?
function onStart()
{
    $this['hello'] = "Hello world!";
}
?>
==
<h3>{{ hello }}</h3>

The next example is more complicated. It shows how to load a blog post collection from the database and display on the page (the Acme\Blog plugin is imaginary).

url = "/blog"
==
<?
use Acme\Blog\Classes\Post;

function onStart()
{
  $this['posts'] = Post::orderBy('created_at', 'desc')->get();
}
?>
==
<h2>Latest posts</h2>
<ul>
    {% for post in posts %}
        <h3>{{ post.title }}</h3>
        {{ post.content }}
    {% endfor %}
</ul>

The default variables and Twig extensions provided by October are described in the Markup Guide.

Обработка форм

You can handle standard forms with handler methods defined in the page or layout PHP section (handling the AJAX requests is explained in the AJAX Framework article). Use the form_open() function to define a form that refers to an event handler. Example:

{{ form_open({ request: 'onHandleForm' }) }}
    Please enter a string: <input type="text" name="value"/>
    <input type="submit" value="Submit me!"/>
{{ form_close() }}
<p>Last submitted value: {{ lastValue }}</p>

The onHandleForm function can be defined in the page or layout PHP section in the following way:

function onHandleForm()
{
    $this['lastValue'] = post('value');
}

The handler loads the value with the post() function and initializes the page lastValue attribute variable which is displayed below the form in the first example.

Note: If a handler with a same name is defined in the page layout, page and a page component October will execute the page handler. If a handler is defined in a component and a layout, the layout handler will be executed. The handler precedence is: page, layout, component.

If you want to refer to a handler defined in a specific component, use the component name or alias in the handler reference:

{{ form_open({ request: 'myComponent::onHandleForm' }) }}

Страница 404

If the theme contains a page with the URL /404 it is displayed when the system can't find a requested page.

Страница ошибки

By default any errors will be shown with a detailed error page containing the file contents, line number and stack trace where the error occurred. You can display a friendly error page by setting the configuration value customErrorPage to true in the app/config/cms.php script and creating a page with the URL /error.

Программное включение асетсов на страницу

If needed, you can inject assets (CSS and JavaScript files) to pages with the controller's addCss() and addJs() methods. It could be done in the onStart() function defined in the PHP section of a page or layout template. Example:

function onStart()
{
    $this->addCss('assets/css/hello.css');
    $this->addJs('assets/js/app.js');
}

If the path specified in the addCss() and addJs() method argument begins with a slash (/) then it will be relative to the website root. If the asset path does not begin with a slash then it is relative to the theme.

In order to output the injected assets on pages or layouts use the {% styles %} and {% scripts %} tags. Example:

<head>
    ...
    {% styles %}
</head>
<body>
    ...
    {% scripts %}
</body>